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Ann lives in Florida and occasionally eats grapefruit. Choose the correct statement/s concerning grapefruit-drug interactions: (Select ALL that apply.)
Which of the following statements concerning bone metabolism abnormalities in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is correct?
CJ is a 46-year old female who has a history of a transient ischemic attack (TIA), intracranial hemorrhage, and is notated to have an ST-elevation on her leads. She is taking omeprazole and lives in a rural area so is being medically managed instead of receiving a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Her provider knows that she needs antiplatelet therapy. What do you recommend?
A 20-year-old woman is studying for final exams and wants to know what she can do about several small vesicles that have formed a crust on the upper margin of her lip. The lesions are painful, and she would like to minimize discomfort in for an upcoming job interview.
Which one of the following is a trigger for reactivation of fever blisters?
The formula for 33 grams of coal tar ointment is: 0.33 g of crude coal tar, 0.165 g of polysorbate 80, and 32.505 g of zinc oxide paste. What equipment should be used to measure the required amount of coal tar?
A patient ingested a month supply of amitriptyline 50 mg tablets in a suicide attempt. Her roommate found her approximately 2 hours after the ingestion and calls 911. When the patient arrives in the emergency room, the pharmacist is involved in the discussion of treatment options. Which of the following is most appropriate to treat this patient?
A patient receiving warfarin 5 mg Mon/Wed/Fri and 3 mg all other days presents with an INR result of 3.7. His readings usually fall between 2.4 and 2.7. The patient was diagnosed with atrial fibrillation 6 months ago.
When should the patient return for the next INR?
Before counseling a pregnant woman about the use of a medication that she has been prescribed, you should first check which of the following?
What is the name of the FDA’s adverse event reporting system program?
It’s a priority to increase folic acid intake among women of child-bearing age. Why is this important?
A patient is using digoxin. If he is prescribed the following drug, the digoxin dose will need to be decreased:
Sam has lupus-related renal disease. Her serum creatinine today is 2.7 g/dL and the potassium is 6.2 mEq/L. The physician has prescribed sodium polystyrene sulfonate. Choose the correct statement concerning sodium polystyrene sulfonate:
Trejon is a 64-year old man who has a foley catheter in place and was treated for a urinary tract infection (UTI). His past medical history includes diabetes type II. The nurse staff was suspecting he had an infection and took a culture of his foley catheter. His culture came back positive for E. Coli and he was given a diagnosis of bacteriuria and was started on board-spectrum antibiotics. They also completed a urinalysis and it came back positive for candida albicans. Trejon currently does not state he has any symptoms. What do you recommend to treat for his candida albicans?
Fentanyl Citrate Injection, USP is dispensed as a single dose in a syringe for use in surgery scheduled the same day the drug product is prepared. What would the appropriate storage conditions and beyond use date be for the dispensed product if it had been prepared under ISO Class 5 conditions?
Which of the following mathematical equations can be used to calculate the pH of an electrolyte solution?
Compared to the typical antipsychotic agents, the newer atypical antipsychotic drugs are less likely to cause which of the following side effects?
What laboratory test should be monitored in a patient taking allopurinol?
A patient comes in and asks you what his blood pressure goal should be. His past medical history includes hypertension, Type II diabetes, Angina, GERD, and hypercholesterolemia. What should you respond to this patient?
What is the name of the accreditation body for more than 21,000 health care organizations and programs in the U.S. including hospitals, health care networks, long term care facilities, home care organizations, office-based surgery centers and independent laboratories?
Mary developed a UTI and received a 3-day course of an antibiotic. She tells the pharmacist that she used to get diarrhea when she took antibiotics but does not expect this to happen now because she uses a probiotic. What should you say?
A 76-year-old woman had been taking metoprolol extended-release 100 mg daily and warfarin 4 mg daily (both for atrial fibrillation) and amitriptyline 50 mg QHS (for migraine prophylaxis) for several years. Shortly after the death of her spouse, she experienced very sad mood swings. Initially she was prescribed citalopram 40 mg daily. When this was not very effective, the physician added on paroxetine 10 mg daily (as he did not wish to increase the citalopram dose). What is this patient at risk for due to the drug combinations?
A pharmacist will provide information on treatment options for hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. (Select ALL that apply.)
FooFoo is a 59-year old male patient who comes into your clinic to be pharmacologically cardioverted after 7 days of consistent atrial fibrillation symptoms. He has a past medical history of atrial fibrillation and a heart failure exacerbation with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction of 25%. What do you recommend to cardiovert FooFoo?
What dosage adjustment needs to be taken into consideration if a patient’s phenytoin regimen needs to be changed from a capsule to a suspension?
Which of the following is an appropriate route for administration of heparin? (Select all that apply)
Which of the following is true?
A patient comes for counseling and to initiate warfarin therapy. The patient is post-myocardial infarction with high risk for left ventricular thromboembolism requiring oral vitamin K antagonism.
What is the most appropriate INR therapeutic range for this patient’s therapy?
Which of the following drugs cannot be prescribed by a general practitioner?
Davis wrote this prescription: 1.0 teaspoonful of oral suspension. UAD
The pharmacist wanted to verify the dose, but neither the child’s age nor weight was provided. What are possible sources of medication errors found in this prescription? (Select ALL that apply.)
A patient brings in a prescription for orlistat. Which of the following vitamins should the pharmacist recommend the patient take? (Select ALL that apply.)
Which of the following statins has the lowest risk of drug interactions?
Which of the following medication(s) can increase the level theophylline?
Which of the following adverse drug reaction should be reported to the prescriber about montelukast?
A patient purchasing alli (orlistat) asks the pharmacist whether there are any special instructions he should follow. What should the pharmacist tell him?
A 64-year-old male is brought to ER by his spouse after she found him wandering in the back yard. He was spraying grass when he experiences stomach pain with cramping. He had episodes of diarrhea and vomiting. He is currently somewhat confused, his eyes are watery, pupils constricted, and skin is flushed. His spouse tells you that he has several different pills at home which he takes for different conditions. They include: verapamil, hydrochlorothiazide, lisinopril, cetirizine, warfarin, codeine syrup, allopurinol, vitamin D, St. John’s wort, lansoprazole, and ibuprofen. He does drink about a 6-pack of beer per day. Vital signs include: T 37°C (98.6°F), BP 120/68, P 58, RR 14
Which of the following is likely to be effective in the treatment of this patient?
An investigational drug in early development has a high therapeutic index. What does this mean?
Which of the following antibacterial agents is judged to be “probably safe” and can be recommended for administration to a pregnant patient?
A 55-year-old male patient with a past medical history of Type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension comes into your pharmacy. His past blood pressure reading is 142/93 mmHg. According to JNC 8 guidelines, what is the recommended blood pressure goal for this patient based on the information given?
Choose the correct statement/s regarding practices to help ensure the sterility in a laminar flow hood: (Select ALL that apply.)
Which natural products can be useful for migraine headache prophylaxis? (Select ALL that apply.)
Sara has been using a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Which of the following drugs can be dispensed to Sara and will not cause concern? (Select ALL that apply.)
A pharmacist is counseling a 45-year-old man with new prescription for Spiriva Handihaler. Which of the following information is/are the correct counseling points? (Select ALL that apply)
Which of the following medications the pharmacist must counsel “not to swallow the capsule”? (Select ALL that apply)
A 56-year-old male presents to the urologist with complaints of urinary frequency, urgency, hesitancy and nocturia. Upon examination, it is determined that the prostate is enlarged and weighs approximately 50 grams. His current medications include atorvastatin 40 mg once daily, lisinopril 20 mg once daily, aspirin 325 mg once daily, HCTZ 25 mg once daily, Humalog 7 units with meals, Lantus 50 units at night. Pertinent data: PSA 4.6 ng/mL, BP 120-130/74-80, fasting glucose 106, HgbA1c 6.2%. The physician decides to initiate terazosin.
Which of the following patient education points will you address first regarding this medication with this patient?
A 23-year-old woman with plaque psoriasis on the scalp asks the pharmacist to recommend a product. Which of the following is effective?
What clinical trial is designed to show that a treatment is no less effective than an existing treatment?
What would be the desirable gastric pH that should be achieved with antacid administration?
Sara is a 54-year-old female patient with a past medical history of rheumatoid arthritis x 10 years (RA), hypertension, and dyslipidemia. She currently takes methotrexate 5 mg and folic acid 1 mg. During a recent visit with the rheumatologist, Sara reported a gradual increase in morning stiffness, joint pain, and swelling over the last 2 months. The rheumatologist would like to initiate combination therapy to help control her symptoms and prevent disease progression. Her current disease activity level is considered moderate. Which of the following is the most appropriate option to add to her current regimen?
A hospital pharmacist dispensed the wrong vaccine for an infant, who then had to be re-inoculated. The same pharmacist pulled the wrong type of insulin from the refrigerator to send to the floor. Which of the following represents the most reasonable method to help the pharmacist avoid this type of error in the future?
Which calcium supplement is absorbed better in an acidic environment and is taken with meals?
Jess worries that she will have a hip fracture. What agents increase the risk of Jess having a fall? (Select ALL that apply.)
A patient with severe COPD experiences exacerbation. She is currently on Arcapta Neohaler and azithromycin. The doctor decides to start her on Daliresp. Which of the following medication(s) will be contraindicated to this patient? (Select ALL that apply)
A mother is asking for assistance. Her 6-year-old son has white bumps on his fingers that appear to be warts. The warts do not seem to bother him but he keeps injuring the warts.
A child with warts on the hands should be counseled to use a nonprescription product that contains what concentration of salicylic acid?
What is the most appropriate storage temperature for biologicals?
A patient comes to the pharmacy to refill prescriptions; she brings a grocery bag full of prescription medications, dietary supplements, and over-the-counter medications. She pulls 2 medications out of the bag and tells you that she received them from a relative in Spain. She would like to receive a similar medication if it is available in the United States.
What reference would you consult for information about the imported medications?
Antimicrobial resistance is usually associated with which of the following factors?
A patient comes for counseling and to initiate warfarin therapy. The patient recently experienced a DVT secondary to oral contraceptive therapy. What is the most appropriate INR therapeutic range for this patient’s therapy?
A pharmacist works in a small city hospital that has a medical doctor who is an orthopedist. He does several hip replacements and several knee replacements at this hospital per month. The pharmacist hopes to implement patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) devices for the orthopedic patients. However, the medical staff at the hospital is overburdened and the head of the nursing team is not interested in changing to a new system. Communication between healthcare professionals is lacking. Choose the primary reason why PCA devices may not be appropriate in this setting:
Which of the following agents is required for calcium absorption?
RM is a 48 year-old female patient who is hospitalized with chest pain. She uses many drugs, including Cozaar, Coumadin, Coreg, Lasix and Micro-K. An INR is taken and is reported as a critical lab value. At this hospital the critical value for warfarin is an INR ≥ 4. Select the best definition of a critical:
You have a patient taking digoxin his current level is 0.25 ng/mL. You know that the normal levels of digoxin are 0.5 to 0.8 ng/mL. You take another digoxin level 2 hours after giving the medication to the patient and notice that the levels are now 1.5 ng/mL. What should you do?
|Cefazolin sodium||Cefazolin for Injection, USP Sterile Powder for Reconstitution, 500 mg vial|
|Thimerosal||Bulk thimerosal powder, non-sterile|
|0.9% Sodium chloride for injection, USP||0.9% Sodium Chloride for Injection, USP Sterile solution, 20 mL vial|
The ingredients needed to prepare the formulation are listed in the table below. Based on this information, what USP <797> risk level and general associated beyond-use dating would you assign to this product?
Which of the following statements regarding the use of controlled-release analgesic formulations to provide longer-lasting analgesia is true?
Which of the following is an appropriate statistic to describe the most common value in data distribution?
What risk factor(s)/lipid class combination most closely identifies the need to institute pharmacotherapy?
A father wishes to purchase NoDoz Maximum Strength (caffeine) for his 10-year-old daughter, who has perennial allergic rhinitis. The physician believes she has chronic fatigue due to a sleep disorder and requested further evaluation before prescribing any type of medication. The father only wants to use NoDoz until she can be seen by a sleep laboratory. What should the pharmacist advise him to do?
Which of the following represents a common cause of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections?
Which agent is a precursor to androgens (male sex hormones)?
A patient has G6PD-deficiency. What will occur if the patient receives primaquine for malaria prophylaxis?
SJ is a patient coming into your clinical to be evaluated for statin therapy. He is 60 years old and has an LDL-C level of 170 mg/dL. His only co-morbid condition is peripheral artery disease. What statin therapy should you start SJ on?
A 21-year-old male presents to his primary care physician with urethritis, proctitis, urethral discharge, dysuria, and itching. The microscopic findings of the urethral discharge include C. trachomatis. The patient admits to unprotected intercourse approximately 10 days ago. His medical record indicates he is allergic to clarithromycin and penicillin. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment option?
A 54-year-old male patient complains of a rash between the eyes, in the eyebrows, down the sides of the nose, and in the ear canals. He says it burns and itches. The pharmacist notes reddened areas of skin in a symmetric pattern with indistinct borders, and greasy yellowish scaling flakes. What condition is most likely?
What statement is true regarding the primary objective of different clinical studies in drug development?
The patient presents with a 36-hour history of excruciating pain in his right great toe. The patient admits to nonadherence to medications because he “just forgets to refill them”. The patient received prescriptions for Zyloprim and Naprosyn EC the last time he had a similar episode, but he claims the medications did not seem to work. What is the most likely explanation?
Which of the following defines pharmacokinetics?
One of the largest causes of needlestick infections is due to the use of glucose meters in healthcare settings that are used to test many patients. Another cause of needlestick infections is due to vials of medicine, such as insulin, that are used in more than one patient. Choose the correct statement/s: (Select ALL that apply.)
Choose the correct statement concerning vitamin D supplements:
A male is hospitalized with a pulmonary embolism. He is receiving unfractionated heparin for VTE treatment. Which of the following lab values would indicate heparin-induced thrombocytopenia?
WBC: 13.5 (3.5-12) HGB: 16.1(13.4-17.7)
HCT: 48.2 (40-53) MCV: 93 (80-97)
PLT: 73 (150-420) BUN: 22 (6-23 mg/dL)
Creatinine: 1.9 (0.7-1.6 mg/dL)
SM is a 14-year old male who has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). He also has a history of substance abuse. What drug should be recommended for him?
A 17-year-old sexually active gravida 0 para 0 presents with painful menstruation. This is accompanied by diarrhea, headache, nausea, and vomiting. She feels incapacitated for 48 to 72 hours during menstruation each period. She was tried on first line medication with side effects which she claims she could not tolerate. Doctor started her then on combination oral contraceptives.
What is one of the effects of this medication?
This patient is prescribed the medication Latisse. When she comes to the pharmacy to get the prescription filled, she asks how the medication should be stored. The package insert for Latisse instructs the patient to store Latisse at 2° to 25°C. According to USP standards, which of the following environments is the best choice to recommend to this patient for storage of Latisse?
You receive a prescription for Crude Coal Tar ointment 33 grams. You have vials that contain triamcinolone acetonide suspension 40 mg/mL. What equipment would be most useful in compounding this preparation?
A multicenter randomized controlled phase III trial is designed to investigate whether a new drug, daclizumid, is better than placebo in the treatment of early breast cancer (stages I, II). Phase II trial has shown significant benefit over placebo in 42 women (open label trial) in overall response rates and recurrence rates. Women ages 34 to 65 will be enrolled if they have unilateral breast cancer, have not had any prior chemotherapy, have normal serum creatinine and liver function tests, as well as MUGA tests. Patients who are HER2/neu positive, have other prior cancers, or have any comorbidity will be excluded. Following treatment, ER/PR + cancer patients will be offered tamoxifen therapy for 5 years. Interim analysis performed in 2 years after opening of the study.
What is the major limitation of this study?
A 46-year-old male receives a prescription for fluoxetine 10 mg daily for his first episode of generalized anxiety disorder. He is reluctant to take medications but agrees to adhere to therapy if it will make him feel better. 3 months later, he returns and is in remission. How soon can he stop this medication?
What is the definition of a Type II error?
Which of the following are High-Alert drugs per ISMP?
Which calcium supplement is absorbed well on either an empty stomach or with food?
What lab values will be present in a patient with a metabolic acidosis?
Guy Simpton is a 74 year old male has Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) and hyperlipidemia. He is on atorvastatin 40 mg once daily. Labs were drawn and his LDL-C was 285 mg/dL. One year later, he comes back into clinic after intensive diet and exercise and his LDL-C comes back at 205 mg/dL. His provider asks you what he should do. What do you recommend?
A patient appearing to be aged in his 40s asks the pharmacist about a product to help his insomnia. He has only had it for 1 night and thinks it may be caused by worry over an upcoming CPA exam. It may also be caused by the fact that his enlarged prostate causes him to have to urinate several times a night. He takes glyburide for diabetes. What should the pharmacist tell him?
Which of the following is an SSRI that is marketed as an isomer rather than a racemate?
In an inpatient hospital pharmacy setting unit dose packaging refers to which of the following?
A pharmacist receives a new prescription for an isotonic eye solution. He would like to consult a reference about isotonicity before compounding the prescription; what reference should he consult?
A new patient presents to the pharmacist-run clinic for counseling and to initiate warfarin therapy. The patient recently underwent surgery for placement of a bileaflet mechanical valve in the mitral position. What is the most appropriate INR therapeutic range for this patient’s therapy?
In biostatistics, what is meant by the median of a group of values?
What is the purpose of the FDA REMS program?
Jamie recently became involved in a sexual relationship. She went to the clinic and was prescribed Loestrin Fe 1/20. She believes in natural healing and takes a handful of supplements daily: a fish oil capsule, a B vitamin complex, a multivitamin, a vitamin E 400 IU capsule, St. John’s wort, kava, and a probiotic supplement. She uses melatonin when she has trouble sleeping. Despite strict adherence with her birth control pill regimen, Jamie became pregnant. What was the most likely cause of the pregnancy?
A patient presents with a butterfly-shaped rash on her face and achey joints. The patient’s chronic medications include Klor-Con, Lasix, Toprol XL, BiDil, Atacand, and Inspra. Which of the daily medication is most likely contributing to this presentation?
Francisca comes into your clinic with a T score of -2.5 with recent vertebral fracture. She is currently only taking calcium and vitamin D supplements. She does have debilitating pain and is taking the maximum 4,000 mg acetaminophen daily dose for pain. What do you recommend for Francisca’s osteoporosis management?
Which agent is available in a rectal formulation for relief of constipation?
A mother is asking for assistance. Her 6-year-old son has white bumps on his fingers that appear to be warts. The warts do not seem to bother him but he keeps injuring the warts. She is afraid someone else in the family will “get these things.”
Salicylic acid for the nonprescription treatment of warts is contained in all of the following products except
The blood-brain barrier has which permeability characteristic?
A patient wants to attend a party tonight and drink alcohol. However, he will have to drive home alone. He wishes to purchase a product he saw advertised as minimizing alcohol absorption to allow him to drive safely and also to prevent hangover. What advice should he be given?
A 54-year-old male presents for nonproductive cough, headache, runny nose, and chest pain. He was previously seen 2 weeks ago with the same symptoms. Physical exam at that time demonstrated coarse breath sounds. Chest X-ray demonstrated left lower lobe consolidation. CT scan showed ground glass pattern with centrilobular nodules. EKG was unremarkable. His final diagnosis upon discharge was Mycoplasma pneumonia for which he was given a prescription for erythromycin 250 mg 4 times/day for 2 weeks. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for persistence of patient symptoms?
Marital status (married, single, divorced) can be described as this type of data:
What is the primary purpose of Phase III studies?
Mary uses Imitrex for migraines 2-4 times each month. Recently she began to use Sarafem 10 mg daily for premenstrual dysphoric disorder. In addition, she uses meperidine once or twice daily for headache relief. Mary is at risk for the following symptoms: (Select ALL that apply.)
Select the name of the lab test used to distinguish between a microcytic and a macrocytic anemia:
CJ is an African American male with bacterium for 14 days and is being treated for a urinary tract infection (UTI). He has black urine and is symptomatic. What does CJ have?
A 24-year-old woman is studying for final exams and wants to know what she can do about several small vesicles that have formed a crust on the upper margin of her lip. The lesions are painful and she would like to minimize discomfort in for an upcoming job interview.
What most likely caused this infection?
Omnipred® contains the following list of ingredients: prednisolone acetate 1%, benzalkonium chloride 0.01%, hypromellose, dibasic sodium phosphate, polysorbate 80, edatate disodium, glycerin, citric acid and/or sodium hydroxide, and purified water. What purpose does hypromellose serve in this formulation?
It is essential that patients use a metered-dose inhaler properly as drug effectiveness may be reduced considerably by poor technique. The recommended techniques for using a metered-dose inhaler to achieve maximum benefit include which of the following?
Which of the terms is appropriate for measuring the variability of a data set?
A patient comes with c/o congestion, thick yellow nasal discharge, pain in sinus areas, and sore throat. She had a cold about 2 weeks ago, with symptoms still persisting. She is allergic to penicillin and she is currently taking ketoconazole. She is diagnosed with acute sinusitis. Which antibiotic of the following would be the best treatment option for this patient?
Blood pressure, hemoglobin A1C and LDL cholesterol can each be described as this type of data:
Which of the following designations describes equivalence between two products?
Drug A is a substrate of 2C9 and a potent 3A4 inhibitor. Drug B is a substrate of 2D6 and 1A2 as well as a potent inhibitor of 2C19. Drug C is a substrate of 3A4 and a potent inhibitor of 2D6. If all three drugs were given together, what would the expected levels of each drug to do?
An 82 year-old male with COPD, has difficulty breathing and finds little relief from daily Advair Diskus and Spiriva. Which condition is most likely in this patient?
CJ is a 37-year old female who comes into your clinic with a past medical history of breast cancer. She recently got a CT scan with IV radiographic contrast media. Her current medications are metformin 1000 mg once daily. Two days after her CT scan, she comes back in and her SCr is 4.6 mg/dL. What caused her SCr level to increase?
What is the appropriate needle gauge for a newly diagnosed diabetic patient requiring subcutaneous insulin?
Which of the following is FDA-approved for treatment of infection C. difficile?
After which phase of the new drug development process is a New Drug Application (NDA) submitted to the FDA?
A patient’s bone mineral density (BMD) test revealed a T score of -2.7. Based on this result, the patient was diagnosed with osteoporosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for osteoporosis compare an individual’s BMD to that of which of the following?
What would be an appropriate target HbA1C level in patients with diabetes, per ADA guidelines?
Which of the following statements regarding specificity are true? (Select ALL that apply.)
What is the primary purpose of Phase II studies?
Mart uses ibuprofen for pain. Mart has hypertension. He takes two over-the-counter ibuprofen tablets twice daily on work days. Lately, he has noticed his blood pressure is elevated more than usual. Which of the following would be safe options that would not elevate his blood pressure? (Select ALL that apply.)
Sam has a creatinine clearance of 38 mL/min. Which of the following statements are accurate concerning this degree of renal impairment? (Select ALL that apply.)
What statistical test would you use in a cohort study?
An 80-year-old patient comes to the pharmacy counter requesting assistance with choosing an appropriate medication to treat her cold symptoms. Her main symptom is nasal congestion. She is a routine customer in your pharmacy and is compliant with her blood pressure medications, glaucoma eye drops, and bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. Make a recommendation to treat this patient’s cold symptoms
Unless specified by a requirement in a USP monograph, in general the expiration date of a pharmaceutical product means that after that date, the product would lose what percentage of its original activity?
A 20-year-old female presents to her gynecologist with a greenish vaginal discharge with a strong odor and vaginal itching. She also mentioned that the last time she and her boyfriend had intercourse, it was very painful and she bled afterward. Which of the following is this patient most likely experiencing?
During the counseling session with a patient Mark, he is encouraged to make lifestyle recommendations to reduce the likelihood of future gouty attacks. Which of the following dietary recommendations must be reviewed with this patient?
What drug has been shown to have a positive effect on mortality in patients with heart failure?
A patient has tested positive for the HLA-B*5701 allele. Which of the following statements is correct?
Select the agents that are used for anxiety: (Select ALL that apply.)
Which of the following statements concerning drug interactions are correct? (Select ALL that apply.)
A patient who was receiving enalapril and spironolactone develops renal insufficiency. An ECG is obtained in the emergency department which demonstrates electrolyte changes consistent with hyperkalemia. What should be administered to this patient to reverse the effects of hyperkalemia on the heart?
What statistical test would you use in a case-control study?
A 17-year-old sexually active G1P1 female presents with white cheesy vaginal discharge. Speculum exam is performed visualizing adherent white and erythematous vaginal membranes. KOH smear – hyphae are seen. The patient is diagnosed with vaginal candidiasis and is prescribed fluconazole for treatment. She is allergic to penicillin and gets anaphylaxis.
Which of the following is a side effect this patient should be counseled about?
Good oral hygiene is important to prevent a specific drug-related effect of which of the following drugs?
Which of these is a contraindication for Nicorette (nicotine) Gum?
What is the therapeutic target range for hemoglobin in patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agent?
A 27-year-old female recently received prescriptions for lorazepam and paroxetine for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. When counseling the patient, it is important to tell her that the full therapeutic effects of lorazepam will occur within:
Jamie developed hives and got a swollen face from using sulfamethoxazole. Which of the following drugs should be avoided? (Select ALL that apply.)
A patient with recently-diagnosed active tuberculosis was prescribed isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. Which vitamin is recommended?
A patient is at risk for atrial fibrillation; she has had this atrial fibrillation in the past. The medical team has asked the pharmacist to check for drugs on her profile which can increase her risk of arrhythmia. The pharmacist should include the following medication:
Tom has end stage renal disease and uses many medications, including Renagel. Previously he was using PhosLo. What is a possible reason that Tom needed to stop using PhosLo?
The CDC releases official guidelines related to vaccines. Where are these located?
A 20-year-old woman is studying for final exams and wants to know what she can do about several small vesicles that have formed a crust on the upper margin of her lip. The lesions are painful, and she would like to minimize discomfort in for an upcoming job interview.
What OTC agent can be used to manage her condition?
A 46-year-old man inquires about quitting smoking. He currently smokes 9 cigarettes per day. He admits that he is a chronic gum chewer and he is concerned about weight gain upon quitting. His past medical history is significant for hypertension, depression, epilepsy, and seasonal allergies. He has tried nicotine patches in the past with limited success. What is the most appropriate treatment option for this patient?
A 45-year-old woman presents to the clinic with a complaint of a runny nose, coughing, and chest congestion. She made a New Year’s resolution to lose weight and is looking to you for advice. The patient has a past medical history of hypertension (6 months), arthritis in the knees (2 years), and asthma (5 years). The patient is 5’7, 165lbs, and has a waist circumference of 36 inches. The patient states she eats a light breakfast and lunch. She eats skinless chicken and a salad for dinner. She has been on this diet for 2 weeks. She does not like to exercise, but walks around the block twice a week. Which of the following is most appropriate to treat her weight concerns?
Which of the following is an appropriate therapeutic target for erythropoietic therapy?
Which anti-Parkinson medications could be used for once-daily dosing?
Jason has a peanut allergy. His aunt will need to be instructed about an anaphylactic reaction. Choose the correct instructions: (Select ALL that apply.)
Select the correct vitamin name and abbreviation match. (Select ALL that apply.)
Sandra is about to get on the waiting list for a kidney transplant. She has a creatinine clearance of 16 mL/min and experiences frequent bouts of hyperkalemia. She cannot use any medicines that elevate potassium because in this patient even small increases in potassium trigger an arrhythmia. Which medications elevate potassium and would put Sandra at risk for arrhythmia? (Select ALL that apply.)
Another name for Enbrel is:
A patient asks the pharmacist about a severe hangover from drinking vodka last night. He awakened with heartburn, nausea, tremor, dizziness, fatigue, body aches, headache, and depression. What is the worst combination of ingredients for him?
After you ask for her allergies, an elderly woman mentions that she is allergic to capsules. She says that capsules never seem to get into her throat correctly and she hates swallowing them. She says that even after a full glass of water she still feels the capsule right in her mouth. After looking at her profile, you find out that 4 out of 7 of her medications are capsules.
Which of the following is likely to help her swallow?
Another name for Macrobid is:
Combivent is also known as:
Another name for Bactrim is:
Magnesium stearate is commonly used as what type of pharmaceutic ingredient in tablet preparation?
Many dosage forms and medication delivery methods are considered suitable for nonprescription use. However, some are not available for nonprescription products. Which of the following is not available on a nonprescription basis?