A Quick Guide to Drug Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

We all know the general idea about how medications work, right? Drugs that save lives, control diseases, and even prevent or delay certain ones from developing in the first place. In addition, not only do they come in various forms, but they’re also taken into the body in ways other than the mouth. It’s fascinating to see the evolution of drugs over the years and the invention of new ones. What’s even more fascinating is the way that these magic bullets work in the body. Thanks to the brilliant teamwork of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, drugs are able to do what they do. Let’s navigate these concepts together.

Pharmacokinetics: The Body’s Effect on the Drug

Pharmacokinetics has to do with what the body does to a drug and involves 4 processes: absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion.1

Step 1: Absorption

  • Once a drug is administered, (via the oral, intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous etc. routes) it enters systemic circulation. The method of administration has its own characteristics of absorption which affect the speed and amount of drug that reaches the desired location of effect.

Step 2: Distribution

  • The drug travels through the blood to be dispersed throughout the tissues. How well it gets distributed depends on the biochemical properties of the drug and the physiology of the person. The end goal is to achieve effective drug concentration at the desired destination.

Step 3: Metabolism

  • Most drugs pass through to the liver which is the main site of drug metabolism. Active drugs are either converted to inactive forms that are more hydrophilic to move on to renal clearance, or in the case of a prodrug, it is subsequently converted into active metabolites.

Step 4: Excretion

  • The drug reaches the final step in its journey through the body where it can now be removed. The kidneys usually perform this major function with the drug excreted via urine. Other forms of excretion are bile, sweat, or stool.

Pharmacodynamics: The Drug’s Effect on the Body

Pharmacodynamics has to do with what the drug does to the body and involves the drug’s characteristics and physiological effects. Drugs produce effects by interacting with the body either through direct or indirect means. Direct effects result from the direct interaction of the drug with a receptor or enzyme that produces the effect. Indirect effects result from an interaction of the drug with a receptor or protein somewhere else that produces the desired effect. The interaction with specific receptors, enzymes, or molecules is what leads to desired therapeutic effects or undesired side effects.

The Balancing Act

It’s not enough to select the right drug. Finding the right dose is also key. It is essentially a balancing act. Too much of a drug can be toxic while too little may not produce the intended effect. Considering factors such as the drug’s physical and chemical properties, the characteristics of the patient it’s being given to (because no two individuals are the same), and the correct dose and dosage form of the drug are all paramount to achieving balance and the desired result. The teamwork between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is a captivating spectacle that simply could not work without each working alongside the other.

Image: Pixabay

Midrara Kashmari

RxPharmacist Team


  1. Grogan S. Pharmacokinetics. PubMed. Published 2020.
  2. Marino M, Zito PM. Pharmacodynamics. PubMed. Published 2020.

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Hypothyroidism vs Hyperthyroidism: Understanding the Difference

The small, butterfly-shaped thyroid gland is in the neck and packs a punch when it comes to regulating the body’s metabolism. But what happens when it’s no longer balanced? What happens when it is working too hard or not hard enough? Let’s explore the difference between two common thyroid disorders- hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

Image: Wikimedia Commons

Hypothyroidism: An Underactive Thyroid

Hypothyroidism has to do with the thyroid’s inability to produce enough thyroid hormone.1 The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s disease, an autoimmune disorder where antibodies attack the thyroid gland.2 There is a deficiency in the T4 hormone (thyroxine) that causes an elevation in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH regulates thyroid hormone production. Because of the deficiency, the body compensates by trying to produce more thyroid hormone, hence the elevated TSH. When T4 is low, the body slows down. This results in fatigue, weakness, weight gain, cold intolerance, dry skin, constipation, and so on.2 Hypothyroidism is more common than hyperthyroidism and occurs more often in females.

Hyperthyroidism: An Overactive Thyroid

On the other hand, hyperthyroidism is the complete opposite. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves’ disease which is also an autoimmune disorder where antibodies stimulate increased thyroid production of the T4 hormone.2 There is an increase in T4 hormone that causes TSH to be low. When T4 is high, the body speeds up. This results in anxiety, tremor, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, heat intolerance, frequent bowel movements, and so on.2 Hyperthyroidism is more common among females of older age.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Making an accurate diagnosis is crucial as both conditions involve the thyroid, and some symptoms may appear similar even though there is still a difference. Measuring thyroid hormone levels via laboratory blood tests will confirm diagnosis.

Treatment for hypothyroidism involves thyroid hormone replacement such as levothyroxine (Synthroid) or liothyronine (Cytomel), while treatment for hyperthyroidism involves antithyroid medication such as Propylthiouracil (PTU) or methimazole, surgery, or using radioactive iodine to destroy part of the gland.2

Pharmacists play a role in managing these disorders through collaboration with other healthcare providers. Such actions involve providing dosing guidance, counseling patients on medication usage and side effects, offering recommendations for symptom management, and addressing potential complications of not treating the disorder that could result in cardiovascular and fertility issues alike. They can also monitor drug interactions and educate patients on the importance of medication adherence.

In Summary

Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism- two sides of an imbalanced thyroid gland have a profound effect on the body. To understand and manage each condition, appropriate understanding is required as to what makes them different, what symptoms to watch out for, and how to treat each condition accordingly to achieve thyroid balance once more.

Midrara Kashmari

RxPharmacist Team


  1. Hypothyroidism vs. hyperthyroidism: What’s the difference? NIH MedlinePlus Magazine.
  2. Hyperthyroidism vs. Hypothyroidism: Here’s How to Tell The Difference | Hartford HealthCare | CT.

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Securing my dream residency with the help of RxPharmacist

When I began pharmacy school, I didn’t have a clear idea of where I wanted to end up, but I quickly learned that I wanted to practice at the top of my license. I began to entertain the idea of completing post graduate residency training and spent a lot of time early in my didactic career dedicated to studying and excelling in my academics. While this clinical knowledge was valuable, I learned from RxPharmacist that there is more to the transition from student to graduate than just what we study.

RxPharmacist helped teach me about the transferrable skills I should hone to make the transition to residency easier. Not only was the internship itself a unique extracurricular that set me apart from other residency applicants but the timing of the internship itself was so important to my journey. As an intern during the fall semester of my final year of pharmacy school I was employed by RxPharmacist throughout the residency application process, and they made me feel so supported! I was able to obtain a positive letter of recommendation from my preceptor as well. Overall, I think that the RxPharmacist internship helped me match with a great residency program.

Megan P., Fall 2022 RxPharmacist Intern

Northeast Ohio Medical University

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Intern Testimonial- Lifelong lessons, friendships, and wisdom!

My time as a medical writer with RxPharmacist was easily one of the most valuable experiences I’ve had throughout pharmacy school. This internship was instrumental in guiding me through the world of medical communications and provided me with the knowledge to help strengthen my clinical writing and editing skills. The unconditional support I received from my preceptor and mentors facilitated a deeper understanding of the unlimited possibilities and career paths available to aspiring pharmacists. The connections I made during this time will undoubtedly remain lifelong, and the wisdom I received along the way was priceless… I encourage all pharmacy students to apply to this internship and explore a more non-traditional pharmacy path!

Apart from the hands-on writing experience I obtained during this internship, I also participated in RxPharmacist’s employment workshop. As I am currently navigating the transition from pharmacy school to the workforce, I can confidently say this workshop has equipped me with the knowledge and strategies necessary to present myself as a competitive and qualified candidate right out of school. With the advice I received about CV/resumes, networking, and interviewing, I have been able to confidently take on the job search and make solid traction with multiple opportunities. Thanks to RxPharmacist, I am close to securing my dream job as a pharmacist and medical writer!

Danielle G., Fall 2022 RxPhamacist Intern

Nova Southeastern University

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End of our Pharmacy School Journey… What is next?

We come to the end of our pharmacy school journey, and we wonder what’s next? Individuals that have a pharmacy degree have a variety of career options, so being adaptable and well-rounded is very important in life. I have embarked on many different opportunities during my journey through pharmacy school. When I saw the email from my school about the RxPharmacist internship, I immediately wanted to apply. This internship stood out because of its unique opportunities. After completing the internship, I can honestly say that it was incredible and unique.

The RxPharmacist team is filled with individuals that are wonderful and very knowledgeable. They genuinely care about you and want you to succeed. I really enjoyed my time with the RxPharmacist team because, every day, I felt very motivated and excited about the next project or task I was about to complete. Every day I felt like I was truly part of the RxPharmacist team and a real contributing member. I utilized my skill sets, and I am grateful that this internship allowed me to give back to my pharmacy profession. It is amazing the way this internship is set up because it allows you to connect with so many individuals across America. I have learned so much from every single person I encountered and met so many people through this internship that I will never forget. During my internship, I focused on enhancing medical writing and, more specifically, technical writing skills. This internship exposed me to various areas, from pharmacy-related topics to post-graduate transition preparation to new career options. All the projects that I have completed have allowed me to grow as an individual, personally and professionally. I am excited about the future and very thankful to the RxPharmacist team for allowing me to be part of their first-ever fall internship program.

– Dagmara Z. 2022 RxPharmacist Medical Writer Intern

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Overview of Drug Development Process: From the Idea to the Finished Product

Drug development is an extensive process that takes time to be completed. Depending on which therapeutic area the drug is being developed for, more specifically, which disease it is targeting, the process might be slightly faster or slightly slower. To give you an idea, on average, it can take over 10 to 15 years for a drug to be developed. Especially now, with new technology and innovative thinking, many of us don’t understand why it takes so long for a drug to be developed. To better understand this process, let’s take a look at some of these steps. There are 5 core stages of drug development: discovery and development, preclinical research, clinical research, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug review, and FDA post-market drug safety monitoring.

Discovery and Development

  • This is when the research and development begin. There is an idea that has been discovered and researchers go through research, experiments, and tests to gather information and identify the right compound.

Preclinical Research

  • Research must be done in vitro and in vivo to identify the toxicity of that compound before it can go on to be tested on people. In vitro means studies conducted in a glass or test tube, and in vivo means studies are performed on living things.

Clinical Research

  • This is where the clinical trial design is created, and the Investigational New Drug Process (IND) begins. The IND application is submitted to FDA before the clinical research begins. There are phases within the clinical research stage.
    • Phase 1
      • The purpose is safety, toxicity, and dosage.
      • The process takes about a few months and includes about 20 to 100 individuals that are healthy or people with the disease that the drug is targeting.
    • Phase 2
      • The purpose is efficacy, additional safety data, and identifying side effects.
      • The process takes about months to about two years and can include a couple of hundred people with the disease that the drug is targeting.
    • Phase 3
      • The purpose is efficacy, monitoring, and gathering a detailed side effect profile.
      • The process is about one to four years and includes anywhere from 300 to 3,000 volunteers with the disease the drug is targeting.
    • Phase 4
      • This phase is conducted after the drug has been approved. The purposes of this phase are continued monitoring of drug safety and efficacy.

FDA Drug Review

  • Once all the other stages are successfully completed and the drug demonstrates safety and efficacy, a New Drug Application (NDA) can be submitted to the FDA. This is where the drug is considered for FDA approval. This FDA review process can take about 6 to 10 months.

FDA Post-Market Drug Safety Monitoring

  • This process involves the FDA continually monitoring the drug’s safety and efficacy.

These stages show just how long the process and steps are for drug development. If you want to learn more in detail about each process, the FDA has a great section on the drug development process. Also, the FDA has a section on novel drug approvals. In that section, it includes the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) approval of many new drugs and biological products. That list doesn’t include approvals of all products, but it does include new molecular entities and new therapeutic biological products. It is an incredible list to see exactly how many drugs get approved yearly.

It is fascinating to witness how many drugs undergo development, especially in recent times. Hopefully, in the future, we will continue to see innovative processes that move medicine forward. Overall, drug development is an extensive process that includes many stages and phases which shows just how much time it takes for everything to be completed to have an end product that is safe and effective.

Dagmara Zajac

RxPharmacist Team


  1. Mohs RC, Greig NH. Drug discovery and development: Role of basic biological research. Alzheimers Dement (N Y). 2017;3(4):651-657. Published 2017 Nov 11. doi:10.1016/j.trci.2017.10.005
  2. In Vivo vs In Vitro: Definition, Pros and Cons. Drug Discovery from Technology Networks.,test%20tube%20or%20petri%20dish. Accessed December 29, 2022.
  3. Commissioner Oof the. Step 1: Discovery and Development. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed December 29, 2022.
  4. Commissioner Oof the. Step 2: Preclinical research. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed December 29, 2022.
  5. Commissioner Oof the. Step 3: Clinical research. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed December 29, 2022.
  6. Commissioner Oof the. Step 4: FDA Drug Review. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed December 29, 2022.
  7. Commissioner Oof the. Step 5: FDA Post-Market Drug Safety Monitoring. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed December 29, 2022.
  8. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Novel drug approvals for 2022. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed December 29, 2022.

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How to handle the transition from being a student to being a full-time employee


When you start school, most of us only think about how far the end is to attain that degree, but as cliche as this might sound, the future is closer than we feel it is. For some of us, we might know what we want to do with the degree that we are trying to achieve. Then there are others who hope that education will steer them toward a career path during school. Either way, it is good to start thinking about how to make the transition from school to a full-time job. At the end of the day, even though some of us might be ahead of others by knowing what our end goal is, we are all going to heavily rely on our transferable skills to make that transition smoother.

What are transferable skills?

Transferable skills help you adjust to a new position or setting in your career. These are the general core skills that you have gained throughout all of your life experiences that you can apply to that new step in your life.

These are some examples of transferable skills, but depending on the environment of your previous experiences, jobs, education, etc., you’ll attain different transferable skills.

One of the first questions that might come up when thinking about transitions in life is, “How do I know what skills I will need so I can prepare myself to be successful,” or “How do I know what I want to do with my degree?”

  • If you are starting your undergraduate or graduate coursework, look for the skills you need to attain to be ready after you graduate. This, of course, will require doing some research. Some helpful places to start are job descriptions and individual testimonials on websites.
  • If you know what education you want to attain but are still deciding the area you want to be in after you graduate, then look for reasons that excite you about your field of education and places you could be in with that degree. After that, see what opportunities, internships, or volunteer work you can possibly do to build connections with other individuals within the area you want to be in. At the end of the day, you never know what you’ll get out of that experience and how much it’ll shape your future.
  • What has helped many individuals during school is being open-minded. You may have a very general idea of what you want to do, but until you do it yourself or see it with your own eyes, you may not know if a certain career is or isn’t for you. For example, writing essays in undergrad might not have been your favorite thing to do, but that does not mean you won’t want to be a professional medical writer. Even though you are writing in both settings, it’s much different.

Prepare yourself ahead of time. Extracurriculars are one way that can help you attain skills while doing things outside of your coursework that exposes you to possible job prospects. It is important to take advantage of all the opportunities you can because once you graduate, it is not the same as when you are a student. Being a student, you have a special advantage that some forget to utilize to learn things from others. Remember that everything you did when you were a student has shaped you become a full-time employee. Make sure to strategically approach those years, so you can get the most out of them.

Often, we hear that connections are very important. Well, this is one example where your connections might help you. If you’re going into an entry-level job, residency, or fellowship, people before you had to go through the change from being a student to a full-time employee. Don’t forget to reach out to your connections to hear how they handled their transitions. Even though your post-graduate plans may be unique or your road in life is different from others, don’t disregard others’ experiences and opinions. Connecting with others makes you more educated about life. At the end of the day, what you do will be what’s best for you.  

Overall, transferable skills and preparing yourself ahead of time for that transition will help you in the long run. In the future, others may reach out to you to understand how you handled your career transition. You will be able to share your story at that time, and in sharing those experiences, you will be able to set the stage for other people’s success in their journey of finding their ideal career.

Dagmara Zajac

RxPharmacist Team


  1. Transferable skills: How to use them to land your next job. Coursera. Accessed December 27, 2022.
  2. Tauchman ER. Great Student, great employee: How to make the transition. Default. Published December 19, 2022. Accessed December 27, 2022.

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The Importance of Medication Use Evaluation


The continued drug development expands the drugs available on the market for patients. How do we determine if patients are on the best drugs available? How do we determine if the drugs on the formulary for a given healthcare system are appropriate based on the market or trends seen within a healthcare system? The answer to these questions is in the importance of medication use evaluation (MUE). This type of evaluation does not provide answers to all the questions surrounding medication use but helps us get to a place of understanding, which can facilitate changes that are beneficial for patients in the long-term sense.

When discussing MUE, there are other processes needed to be addressed. Those processes are the drug utilization review (DUR) and the drug use evaluation (DUE). DUE and DUR are regarded as being synonymous with each other as these are ongoing drug therapy reviews. DUR is a quality assurance measure. For example, DUR encompasses three categories: prospective, concurrent, and retrospective. There are different categories for these drug therapy reviews depending on if we are addressing the drug review before dispensing, evaluating medication use during ongoing treatment, or reviewing therapy after treatment completion. Overall, DURs are put in place to ensure safety and efficacy of medication use.

DURs and DUEs are precursors to the MUE, which provides a more detailed performance tool for healthcare professionals. The difference that stands out about MUE from other processes is that it focuses on outcomes and quality of life. Well, the next question someone may ask is, “how do you know if an MUE needs to be initiated?” From the various MUE objectives, one can realize that the MUE process can begin for a variety of reasons. For example, it can be because of increased medication errors seen within a healthcare system, or the withdrawal of approved products. Depending on the objective to start an MUE, a therapeutic or process outcome is usually determined at the end. There are different types of MUE objectives, such as:

  • Patient safety improvement
  • Drug therapy optimization
  • Cost minimization
  • Innovative practices assessment

According to the American Society of Health System Pharmacists (ASHP), the framework one can utilize to begin the MUE process is FOCUS-PDCA:

  • Find
  • Organize
  • Clarify
  • Understand
  • Select
  • Plan
  • Do
  • Check
  • Act

Depending on the site utilizing this framework, the approach will differ. On the other hand, MUEs can have its limitations due to the lack of scope, poor documentation, or poor communication. Pharmacists are a very important component of these evaluations because of their expertise. Medication therapy management (MTM) is a big part of many pharmacists’ everyday jobs, and in the long run, MTM results in better patient outcomes. ASHP has a great guidelines documents for those interested in MUE and learning about its in-depth practices.

It is important to be aware of the various processes within systems that determine how patients are treated so they can ultimately receive the best outcomes. The MUE is a long process, but the findings from an MUE can help healthcare systems in various areas. As with any process, there are limitations, and for this reason it is important to have the right healthcare professionals assess these medication evaluations. 

Dagmara Zajac

RxPharmacist Team


  1. ASHP guidelines on medication-use evaluation. Accessed December 23, 2022.
  2. Faley B, Fanikos J. Best Practices for Medication Utilization Evaluations in Postsurgical Pain Management. Curr Emerg Hosp Med Rep. 2017;5(1):33-40. doi:10.1007/s40138-016-0121-2
  3. Fanikos J, Jenkins KL, Piazza G, Connors J, Goldhaber SZ. Medication use evaluation: pharmacist rubric for performance improvement. Pharmacotherapy. 2014;34 Suppl 1:5S-13S. doi:10.1002/phar.1506
  4. Drug utilization review. Accessed December 23, 2022.

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Overview of the Direct Oral Anticoagulants


Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are used to prevent thrombosis and are used for several different indications. This class of medication has stood out for several reasons, but the main reason was that this class of medication does not require regular laboratory monitoring compared to other anticoagulation drug classes. In many ways, anticoagulation guidelines and practices have changed with the addition of this therapeutic drug class. In 2010, the first DOAC dabigatran was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA); since then, many more have been approved.

Dabigatran is categorized as the direct thrombin inhibitor DOAC compared to rivaroxaban and apixaban, which are categorized as the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor DOACs. By 2013, there were more prescriptions for DOACs compared to warfarin (vitamin K antagonist), which in previous years, was the commonly used form of anticoagulation by patients. The common FDA-approved indications for DOACs are the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), prevention of recurrent DVT and PE, and many other indications. In addition, there are multiple off-label indications seen with this drug class as well.

There are considerations that need to be addressed when prescribing this class of medications. In terms of pharmacokinetics, there are comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of DOACs. For example, renal impairment, hepatic impairment, and body weight are all things to consider in patients initiating DOAC therapy. As mentioned previously, this drug class monitoring is different compared to previous methods of anticoagulation monitoring. Currently, there is no approved FDA-specific DOAC monitoring method; however, there are monitoring parameters that need to be performed in patients taking DOACs.

Patient education is critical when patients are beginning any anticoagulation medication. Anticoagulation medications are one of the therapeutic areas where a reversal agent for a class of medication is very beneficial due to the associated risk factors. When the first DOAC was approved, there was no reversal agent approved on the market. In 2015, FDA approved the first reversal agent for the first approved DOAC dabigatran. After that, in 2018, the next reversal agent was approved for apixaban and rivaroxaban.

For newer classes of medications, it is beneficial to be able to look at statistics to understand how receptive the healthcare systems and doctors are to adapting to new methods of treatment. The use of warfarin for atrial fibrillation between 2011 and 2020 decreased from 52.4% to 17.7%. In contrast, DOAC use for atrial fibrillation between 2011 to 2020 increased from 4.7% to 47.9%. It is apparent that these trends in oral anticoagulant use among patients with atrial fibrillation in community practice show an increased use of DOACs over warfarin.

In terms of anticoagulation methods for patients, DOACs have changed the standards of practice. Since the first DOAC was approved, there have been many advancements seen within this class of medications. This overview follows the current anticoagulant standards for patients. Perhaps in the near future, this drug class will continually expand and newer therapies will be introduced and implemented.

Dagmara Zajac

RxPharmacist Team


  1. Chen A, Stecker E, A Warden B. Direct Oral Anticoagulant Use: A Practical Guide to Common Clinical Challenges. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020;9(13):e017559. doi:10.1161/JAHA.120.017559
  2. Navar AM, Kolkailah AA, Overton R, et al. Trends in Oral Anticoagulant Use Among 436 864 Patients With Atrial Fibrillation in Community Practice, 2011 to 2020. J Am Heart Assoc. 2022;11(22):e026723. doi:10.1161/JAHA.122.026723
  3. SavaysaÔ [package insert]. Basking Ridge, NJ: Daiichi Sankyo, Inc., 2021.
  4. Direct oral anticoagulants (doacs). Blood Clots. Published October 4, 2018. Accessed December 20, 2022.

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Pharmacy Entrepreneurs: A new career pathway in our uncertain economic climate


A pharmacy degree is a monumental stepping stone to opening your doors to a variety of jobs. There are three big job areas that pharmacists usually utilize their degree in, and that is a hospital, retail, or the pharmaceutical industry setting. The economic standpoint has influenced many to think outside the box and pursue areas that take more than just attaining a pharmacy degree. There are so many brilliant pharmacists that chose to take a different path, and many refer to that as the “nontraditional path.” These individuals have consequently changed the world job market and more importantly, changed the lives of patients because of their creativity, grit, and braveness.

There are individuals who chose to start their own pharmacies. Pharmacy is a growing field and individuals will require prescriptions, but it is not easy to compete against large chain pharmacies. Yet, individuals choose to go into that market because they see the good outcomesdespite the hurdles that they will most likely face along the way. From an economic standpoint, pharmacies are not usually affected by a recession, which makes it an appealing business market option. Other benefits of starting a business mean you can be your own boss, and there’s a work-life balance component seen in this field compared to others. There is a whole business factor to starting a pharmacy, but that has not discouraged people. They find ways to either educate themselves about it or partner with individuals to see their dream come to life.

An example of entrepreneurs that created something innovative and transformed the pharmacy business is TJ Parker and Elliott Cohen. Parker, after attending pharmacy school, worked for his father’s drug prepackaging business, and then met Cohen while working on an MIT contest. These individuals started PillPack, which prepackages patients’ medications by dosages and delivers it directly to them. PillPack was acquired by Amazon; they reportedly bought it for one billion dollars in cash. Overall, these individuals created something that, in the end, has helped many patients.

Looking at the future, we need to realize that pharmacy, like other healthcare fields, is being revolutionized because of entrepreneurs. Another entrepreneur took his degree and used it in another way to revolutionize the world with a healthy option for individuals. That individual is  Kun Yang, who graduated from pharmacy school and wanted something more than the regular 9 to 5 job in the long-term sense. Yang, along with a group of individuals, started and founded Pricklee. It is a drink that’s made from a cactus and is filled with antioxidants and electrolytes. This group, like others, identified an area that was missing something and created a beneficial product for many individuals.

There are so many things that have been discovered because of entrepreneurs who have the right innovative visions. With the ever-changing economic climate, for some, entrepreneurship is an appealing market to go into. Entrepreneurs must take all their skills and experiences and bring them forward to start something new. There are many ways to define pharmacy entrepreneurs, but in the overall sense, the common factor that drives these individuals to pursue entrepreneurship is their devoted passion to help others.

Dagmara Zajac

RxPharmacist Team


  1. Desk N. Why opening a pharmacy is a good business choice. Advisory Excellence. Published June 30, 2022. Accessed December 16, 2022.
  2. Tindera M. 32-year-old founder sells his pharmacy startup to Amazon. Forbes. Published June 28, 2018. Accessed December 16, 2022.
  3. Your medication, sorted and delivered. PillPack. Accessed December 16, 2022.
  4. Landi H. Making pharmacy more ‘amazon-like’: PillPack founder details Tech Giant’s push into drug delivery. Fierce Healthcare. Published May 13, 2021. Accessed December 16, 2022.
  5. Paul S. Entrepreneurship and pharmacy: Is it possible? LinkedIn. Published February 20, 2021. Accessed December 16, 2022.
  6. Kun Yang: Superfruit and celebrating the small wins. YouTube. Published November 30, 2019. Accessed December 16, 2022.

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